重大胜利!俄罗斯!赚大了!

中国有句老话叫敬酒不吃吃罚酒,
用这句话形容乌克兰是再恰当不过了!
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就在今天,俄罗斯方面透露消息,俄乌双方的第五轮谈判取得了重大进展,乌克兰已经承诺乌克兰将成为中立国,不再进行任何加入北约的努力。
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要说这乌克兰也够悲催的,俄罗斯此前一再警告,不让你加入北约,你偏偏不听!不但加速加入北约的步伐,与此同时演员总统泽林斯基还誓言要收回克里米亚,并不顾俄罗斯的强烈警告,对乌东部地区发动猛烈进攻。
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如今倒好,挨了一顿毒打,被按到地上摩擦,充当了美国的炮灰之后才明白过来西方靠不住,但已经为时晚了!
?重大胜利!俄罗斯!赚大了!
尽管司机还在忽悠乌克兰民众称,乌克兰的领土完整不可动摇,并且乌军还向乌东两州发射导弹,甚至向俄罗斯本土发射导弹,但是对乌克兰局势已经影响不大了,不但不可能挽回乌克兰的败局,反而会加速俄罗斯对乌克兰东部的彻底去军事化。
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俄罗斯已经大举压进顿巴斯,要对顿巴斯残余的10万乌克兰主力军队进行包饺子了。
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而卢甘斯克和顿尼斯克都已经对外公开发表声明,将在战争结束之后,举行全民公投加入俄罗斯。
不仅克里米亚要不回来,又再次搭了两个州进去,也就等于北约东扩未成,俄罗斯反而西扩了。
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传出捷报的不仅仅是在战场之上,而在另一个战场,也就是俄罗斯对标美国为首的西方集团的货币战争,俄罗斯也取得了重大胜利。
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乌克兰战争打响之后,美国蛮横的一脚将俄罗斯踢出美元支付系统,万万没有想到俄罗斯发起了绝地反击,将卢布绑定石油、锚定黄金。并且要求欧洲不友好国家必须使用卢布结算石油。
重大胜利!俄罗斯!赚大了!
虽然美国的这些狐朋狗友们声嘶力竭的反对俄罗斯必须用卢布结算石油的做法,而俄罗斯随即来了一个更狠的决定,那就是3月31号之前如果不用卢布结算,将给欧洲国家停止供气。
一击之下打个欧洲国家彻底给打垮了,许多国家不得不连夜紧急兑换卢布,对俄罗斯制裁叫的很凶的法国已经第一时间宣布购买俄罗斯卢布进行用卢布结算石油。
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乌克兰战争爆发之后,卢布兑美元汇率黑市一度暴跌至170卢布兑1美元,在俄罗斯强采取强力措施之后,卢布的身价急速暴增,截止3月30日,卢布汇率成了1美元兑82卢布。
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一场惊心动魄的货币战争下来,俄罗斯的卢布不但没能像西方所希望的变成废纸一张,反而增值更加值钱了。
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还有网友说俄罗斯做了重大的让步,已经开始从基辅大撤军,要知道,俄罗斯一开始就没有占领乌克兰全境的意图,而战略计划是打掉北约东扩,以及打通乌东走廊。
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而俄罗斯现在已经集中军力,开始对顿巴斯发动最强大的围剿行动,彻底打掉乌克兰在乌东的军事存在。
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最重要的是通过这场乌克兰战争,彻底让美国为首的纸老虎现出原形,面对乌克兰被摩擦,煽风点火的西方国家却没有一个国家敢真正出兵帮助乌克兰。
?重大胜利!俄罗斯!赚大了!
而反观俄罗斯阵营,乌克兰战争打响之后,叙利亚立即出兵乌克兰,伊朗12枚导弹连射美国驻伊拉克使领馆,车臣、南奥塞梯纷纷参战。全球140多个国家拒不站队制裁俄罗斯,这对俄罗斯来说也是一个巨大的胜利。
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虽然战争打到了第35天,俄罗斯也付出了数千官兵伤亡的代价。但是在这场对抗美国为首的整个西方的战斗中,俄罗斯拿到了自己想拿到的乌克兰东部不再被纳粹武装所盘踞,顺利地将乌东卢甘斯克、顿涅茨克和克里米亚连成一片,彻底完成了对乌东部的掌控。
?试问有乌克兰的教训犹在眼前,北约的东扩计划将会遭遇重挫,至少在普京掌权的时代没有哪个国家敢再次充当美国的炮灰,至此,俄罗斯在这场战斗当中的几大目标都也已经完成!
??“擎昊,外面不会是……”??因为那种事被打断了,床上的女人满腹委屈的攀上陆擎昊宽阔的肩膀,用胸前的柔软使劲蹭着他的手臂。??“这样胆小,多半只会是她。”轻蔑的语气,带着对那个女人最深的厌恶。?陆擎昊的五官俊美而锋利,笑起来的时候能让人痴迷其中,可生气后冷淡的眼眸却能让人退避三舍。?“It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.”攀着他的女人深深的被这样的男人吸引。这样完美的男人,凭什么要便宜了唐心洛。她哪点都比唐心洛那个蠢女人好,就算是昊,她也要从唐心洛手中抢过来。“那怎么办?她刚才已经看到我们两在一起……要是她以此来威胁你,那你的……”“看见了正好,这次回来本来就是要找借口甩了她,别管她……我们继续。”?So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years昏暗奢华的主人房内,欧式大床上的一男一女正在极尽投入的做着那种事。男人时不时发出一声餍足的低吼,而女人的媚叫声更是刺耳的让唐心洛觉得恶心。?知道陆擎昊今天可能会回A市,她特意打扮一番从陆家大宅那边赶回两人的新房。没想到进门之后看到的却是这样的场景。?新婚才半年的老公,和别的女人在他们两还没来得及一同睡过的婚床上滚床单。?陆擎昊,他怎么能这么恶心……别留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers) 170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up.?你不勇敢,没人替你坚强。171. If you don t build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs.?如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see.?只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。173. The difference in winning and losing is most often…not quitting.?赢与输的差别通常是不放弃。(华特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique.?我很平凡,但我独一无二。175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself.?我喜欢那些让我笑起来的人,就算是我不想笑的时候。176. Image a new story for your life and start living it.?为你的生命想一个全新剧虽然心里骂着这个男人,可是唐心洛却没有直接冲进去将这对奸夫**抓起来。?她到底还是觉得有愧于对方,虽然她对他的感情一开始不太纯粹,但不可否认,结婚前那一段时间的相处还是让她对陆擎昊有了好感。??父亲早死,母亲也在不久前去世,她以为房间里的男人就是那个可以让她托付终身的人,没想到……??眼泪控制不住的一直往外流,双手也在微微发颤。本,并去倾情出演吧!177. I d rather be a happy fool than a sad sage.?做个悲伤的智者,不如做个开心的傻子。178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.?未来属于那些相信梦想之美的人。(埃莉诺·罗斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and???“谁?”??知道陆擎昊今天可能会回A市,她特意打扮一番从陆家大宅那边赶回两人的新房。???没想到进门之后看到的却是这样的场景。?新婚才半年的老公,和别的女人在他们两还没来得及一同睡过的婚床上滚床单。????陆擎昊,他怎么能这么恶心……??手指不小心碰到了金属门把,发出极其细小的“咔擦”声,这声音很轻,却依然被警惕的陆擎昊发现。[59] ?冥王星的表面温度大概在-238-228℃之间。冥王星的成份由70%岩石和30%冰水混合而成的。地表上光亮的部分可能覆盖着一些固体氮以及少量 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面?[60]?的固体甲烷和一氧化碳,冥王星表面的黑暗部分可能是一些基本的有机物质或是由宇宙射线引发的光化学反应。冥王星的大气层主要由氮和少量的一氧化碳及甲烷组成。大气极其稀薄,地面压强只有少量微帕。不知道出于何种心理,明明应该理直气壮走进去指责那对奸夫**的她,却在这个时候,本能的往公寓外跑。186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says ?I m possible !?一切皆有可能!不可能的意思是:不,可能。”(奥黛丽·赫本) 187. Life isn t fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all.生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. ?After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of?听到门外传来的脚步声,陆擎昊立刻警惕起来。而原配妻子唐心洛此刻的下落,根本没被陆擎昊放在心上。“你迟到了。”男人说完这句,抓住了她的手腕,将她拽进门内。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted.?《生活大爆炸》?184. You can be happy no matter what.?开心一点吧,管它会怎样。185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow.?今天的好计划胜过明天的完美计划。无论多么艰难,都要继续前进,因为只有你放弃的那一刻,你才输了。When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of?没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world;?????*????唐心洛慌张的从电梯公寓里出来,急匆匆的往楼梯间跑。?她不敢坐电梯,她的情绪还没整理好,陆擎昊追出来的话,她不知道该如何面对。?沿着楼梯间下了几层,似乎没有再听到任何异动,她才慢慢擦干了眼泪,从楼梯间里出来。????这里,已不知道是几楼了,不过不管是几楼,走到电梯那下去就行。??眼泪已经没有再流,可是视线却越加模糊,唐心洛悲催的发现,自己的隐形眼镜似乎在仓皇间哭掉了。????她平时习惯带黑框眼镜,为了陆擎昊的一句话,今天特意换上了隐形眼镜,谁知道却发生了让她始料不及的悲剧。????电梯间在哪?????隐形眼镜刚刚脱落的时候,视力会比不戴眼镜的时候减弱更多。原本清晰的世界,在唐心洛的眼中模糊起来。????新婚夜当天,陆擎昊因为紧急公事,留下她一人去了国外。????唐心洛从此住进陆家大宅那边侍奉公婆,作为两人新房的这座酒店式公寓,这还是除了新婚那日第二次过来。????她只能按照记忆和大致印象寻找电梯门。????不远处似乎出现了一个方方正正的门框,看起来就像这边公寓里的金色的电梯门框。????唐心洛加快步伐,摸到电梯门前开始左右寻找电梯键按钮。????摸索了一阵,碰到一个类似于电梯键按钮的形状,轻轻按了一下,电梯键按钮果然亮了起来。????可是亮了一下之后,又忽然暗了下去。????她又着急的按了两下,眼前的电梯门终于打开。唐心洛高兴的抬头,没想到入眼所见,却是一个男人几近赤、裸的模糊身躯。????afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective.?去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition.?任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。appreciate your own efforts.?即使没有人为你鼓掌,也要优雅的谢幕,感谢自己的认真付出。180. Don t let dream just be your dream.?别让梦想只停留在梦里。Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior.San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before,?凝固的熔岩流。火星上常常有猛烈的大风,大风扬起沙尘能形成可以覆盖火星全球的特大型沙尘暴。每次沙尘暴可持续数个星期。火星两极的冰冠和火星大气中含有水份。从火星表面获得的探测数据证明,在远古时期,火星曾经有过液态的水,而且水量特别大。but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. [53]?天王星是离太阳第七颗行星,51118km。体积约为地球的65倍,在九大行星中仅次于木星和土星。天王星的大气层中83%是氢,15%为氦,2%为甲烷以及少量的乙炔和碳氢化合物。上层大气层的甲烷吸收红光,使天王星呈现蓝绿色。大气在固定纬度集结成云层,类似于木星和土星在纬线上鲜艳的条状色带。天王星云层的平均温度为零下193摄氏度。质量为8.6810±13×10??kg,相当于地球质量的14.63倍。密度较小,只有1.24/立方厘米,为海王星密度值的74.7%[54]?恒星 恒星 海王星是离太阳的第八颗行星,直径49532千米。海王星绕太阳运转的轨道半径为45亿千米,公转一周需要165年。海王星的直径和天王星类似,质量比天王星略大一些。海王星和天王星的主要大气成分都是氢和氦,内部结构也极为相近,所以说海王星与天王星是一对孪生兄弟。[55] ?海王星有太阳系最强烈的风,测量到的时速高达2100公里。海王星云顶的温度是-218 °C,是太阳系最冷的地区之一。海王星核心的温度约为7000 °C,可以和太阳的表面比较。海王星在1846923日被发现,是唯一利用数学预测而非有计划的观测发现的行星。[56]?冥王星,位于海王星以外的柯伊伯带内侧,是柯伊伯带中已知的最大天体。[57] ?直径约为2370±20km,是地球直径的18.5%[58] ?There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mothe[51]?土星是离太阳第六颗行星,直径120536㎞,体积仅次于木星。主要由氢组成,还有少量的氦与微量元素,内部的核心包括岩石和冰,外围由数层金属氢和气体包裹着。地球距离土星13亿公里。土星的引力比地球强2.5倍,能够牵引太阳系内其它行星,使地球处于一个椭圆轨道中运行,并且与太阳保持适当距离,适宜生命繁衍。当土星轨道倾斜20度将使地球轨道比金星轨道更接近太阳,同时,这将导致火星完全离开太阳系。[52] ?土星是已知唯一密度小于水的行星,假如能够将土星放入一个巨大的浴池之中,它将可以漂浮起来。土星有一个巨大的磁气圈和一个狂风肆虐的大气层,赤道附近的风速可达1800千米/时。在环绕土星运行的31颗卫星中间,土卫六是最大的一颗,比水星和月球还大,也是太阳系中唯一拥有浓厚大气层的卫星。2006824日,国际天文学联合会大会24日投票决定,不再将传统九大行星之一的冥王星视为行星,而将其列入矮行星。大会通过的决议规定,行星指的是围绕太阳运转、自身引力足以克服其刚体力而使天体呈圆球状、能够清除其轨道附近其他物体的天体。在太阳系传统的九大行星中,只有水星、金星、地球、火星、木星、土星、天王星和海王星符合这些要求。冥王星由于其轨道与海王星的轨道相交,不符合新的行星定义,因此被自动降级为矮行星[61]?地球是离太阳第三颗行星,是我们人类的家乡,尽管地球是太阳系中一颗普通的行星,但它在许多方面都是独一无二的。比如,它是太阳系中唯一一颗面积大部分被水覆盖的行星,也是目前所知唯一一颗有生命存在的星球。质量M=5.9742 ×10^24?公斤,表面温度:t = – 30?~?+45eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.” Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics.[62] ?英国科研人员在《天体生物学》杂志上报告说,如果没有小行星撞击等可能剧烈改变环境的事件发生,地球适宜人类居住的时间还剩约17.5亿年,不过人为造成的气候变化可能缩短这一时间。[63]?彗星是由灰尘和冰块组成的太阳系中的一类小天体,绕日运动。[64] ?科学家使用探测器对彗星的化学遗留物进行分析,发现其主要成份为氨、甲烷、硫化氢、氰化氢和甲醛。科学家得出结论称,彗星的气味闻起来像是臭鸡蛋、马尿、酒精和苦杏仁的气味综合。[65-66] “67P/楚留莫夫格拉希门克彗星?“67P/楚留莫夫格拉希门克彗星?[67]?在太阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的奥尔特云。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这学说,在原有的轨道(或称小天体轨道)上又增加了更多的天体运行轨道。这一模式称每颗行星都沿着一个小轨道作圆周运行,而小轨道又沿着该行星的大轨道绕地球作圆周运动。几百年之后,这一模式的漏洞越来越明显。科学家们又在这个模式上增加了许多轨道,行星就这样沿着一道又一道的轨道作圆周运动。哥白尼想用现代16世纪的)技术来改进托勒密的测量结果,以期取消一些小轨道。在长达近20年的时间里,哥白尼不辞辛劳日夜测量行星的位置,但其测量获得的结果仍然与托勒密的天体运行模式没有多少差别。哥白尼想知道在另一个运行着的行星上观察这些行星的运行情况会是什么样的。基于这种设想,哥白尼萌发了一个念头:假如地球在运行中,那么这些行星的运行看上去会是什么情况呢?这一设想在他脑海里变得清晰起来了。一年里,哥白尼在不同的时间、不同的距离从地球上观察行星,每一个行星的情况都不相同,这是他意识到地球不可能位于星星轨道的中心。经过20年的观测,哥白尼发现唯独太阳的周年变化不明显。这意味着地球和太阳的距离始终没有改变。如果地球不是宇宙的中心,那么宇宙的中心就是太阳。的发现才使牛顿有能力确定运动定律和万有引力定律。哥白尼的日心宇宙体系既然是时代的产物,它就不能不受到时代的限制。反对神学的不彻底性,同时表现在哥白尼的某些观点上,他的体系是存在缺陷的。哥白尼所指的宇宙是局限在一个小的范围内的,具体来说,他的宇宙结构就是今天我们所熟知的太阳系,即以太阳为中心的天体系统。宇宙既然有它的中心,就必须有它的边界,哥白尼虽然否定了托勒玫的九重天,但他却保留了一层恒星天,尽管他回避了宇宙是否有限这个问题,但实际上他是相信恒星天球是宇宙的外壳,他仍然相信天体只能按照所谓完美的圆形轨道运动,所以哥白尼的宇宙体系,仍然包含着不动的中心天体。但是作为近代自然科学的奠基人,哥白尼的历史功绩是伟大的。确认地球不是宇宙的中心,而是行星之一,从而掀起了一场天文学上根本性的革命,是人类探求客观真理道路上的里程碑。哥白尼的伟大成就,不仅铺平了通向近代天文学的道路,而且开创了整个自然界科学向前迈进的新时代。从哥白尼时代起,脱离教会束缚的自然科学和哲学开始获得飞跃的发展。哥白尼的科学成就,是他所处时代的产物,又转过来推动了时代的发展。顺应时代变化 十五、六世纪的欧洲,正是从封建社会向资本主义社会转变的关键时期,在这一二百年间,社会发生了巨大的变化。14世纪ndali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their?别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted.?没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective.?去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition.?任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》?184. You can be happy no matter what.?开心一点吧,管它会怎样。baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.” Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.” Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.” Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,” he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.” Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.” Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.” His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness.?你必须十分努力,才能看起来毫不费力。190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving.?人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦) 191. Be thankful for what you have.You ll end up having more.?拥有一颗感恩的心,最终你会得到更多。192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes.?美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚·罗兰) 193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows.?朋友的作用,就是让你快乐加倍,痛苦减半。194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you.?当你真心渴望某样东西时,整个宇宙都会来帮忙。echanical things.” “I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was ?“My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.” The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.” Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one exampl What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.” Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.” In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.” “No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.” “I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’” Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents.?
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