太行英雄

武汉疫情背后:中共不为人知的另一面让某些国家胆寒!

这段时间,中国以举国之力抗击新冠肺炎,终于迎来了转折性“变化”:不仅新增确诊病例大幅减少,多省市连续多日“零新增”,随着各地复工,由一级响应降为二级,社会秩序也在有序恢复中!

中国用一个多月的时间,交出了一份“高分新冠答卷”,与中国相比,美英日等国,“轻慢”的态度,致使病毒全球蔓延。



克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑-- “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 [67] 在太 CHAPTER X. TOBACCO OFFERINGS. 1808. It was a beautiful moonlight evening in August. A shadowy haze lingered over the river, which glistened and sparkled in the moonlight. The Chief and several members of his family were seated on the beach in front of the Wigwam listening to the Honorable Joseph Papineau, who, with his son, Louis Joseph, had come up in a canoe to see the falls. The former had recently purchased from Bishop Laval the unsettled seigniory of Petit Nation, and had erected an unpretentious cottage, which he occupied during the summer months. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan’s “Types of Canadian Women” (copyright, 1903), by permission. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan’s “Types of Canadian Women” (copyright, 1903), by permission. “It was a lovely vision,” said Mr. Papineau, who had just performed the feat of canoeing to the foot of the Chaudiere Falls for the first time. “On our return we climbed the rugged cliff on the south side, and never shall I forget the panorama that spread out before us. The sun, sinking slowly behind the Laurentian hills, had clothed himself with a robe of splendor. The long reflections lay soft on the waters of the river below. The clouds of ascending mist from the Chaudiere took a thousand shades of color as the western sky faded slowly from crimson into gold and from gold to green and gray, and finally displayed dark shapes, out of which imagination might well have formed a thousand monsters.* * Louis Joseph, afterwards known as the Demosthenes of Canada, and who almost succeeded in making Canada a Republic, with himself as President, was evidently much impressed with the scene, which he described as follows: “Le soleil etait pret decendre sous l’horison, la mureille tout limpide etait d’une transparence vivre, tout penetree de lumiere vaguement prismatiseé.” “As we watched the gathering shadows my thoughts went back two hundred years, to the time when Champlain went on his first trip up the ‘Riviere des Algoumequins,’ as he called it. About two years before he took the trip he sent Nicholas de Vignan, a young Frenchman, up the river with some friendly Indians, and Nicholas had returned with the marvellous story that he had reached the North Sea. He said that the journey could be made in a few days. He also gave an account of having seen the wreck of an English ship. “Champlain was completely taken in, and lost no time in starting off to verify the discovery for which the world had been looking for some time. His fleet consisted of two canoes with two Indians and three Frenchmen, one of whom was Dg employment to over one hundred men. Fortunately for the pioneers of the Ottawa, they were not dependent upon the small revenue derived from the cultivation of the land, but had other resources which afforded them much greater remuneration. The British Navy, which hitherto had been dependent upon Russia for its cordage and lumber, had to look elsewhere for its supply of hemp and timber, owing to the ports of the Baltic having been closed to British ships. The price of hemp having risen from £25 to £118 per ton, they undertook the cultivation of it, and raised over three-fourths of the amount raised in Lower Canada at that time. The exportation of lumber and vegetable alkali, or potash, were also great sources of revenue. In the new clearances were tons of wood ashes from which the lye was extracted and boiled till it looked like molten iron, a barrel of which sold at that time for thirty dollars. Prosperity and success crowned every commercial enterprise upon which they ventured until fire swept every mill, factory and dwelling in the thriving little village out of existence, including thousands of dollars in cash in a small safe in the office, quantities of wheat, hemp, sawn lumber, laths and general merchandise. As there was no compensation in the way of insurance, the loss was much felt. Philemon Wright was not the man to be deterred from climbing the ladder of success, even though he had to mount it by the rungs of adverse circumstances. Though the loss sustained was great, almost overwhelming, he rose above it with a courage which yielded not to disappointment or failure. The cause of the fire long remained a mystery. That it was the work of an incendiary was beyond question. Various theories were advocated by the settlers, but suspicion rested upon Machecawa, who, it was alleged, had been seen by the bookkeeper at a late hour lingering about the mills, a suspicion which gained no credence with the Chief and his family.阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的“奥尔特云”。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这就是彗 [76]  在超新星爆发的过程中所释放的能量,需要我们的太阳燃烧900亿年才能与之相当。[77]  超新星研究有着关乎人类自身命运的深层意义。如果一颗超新星爆发的位置非常接近地球,目前国际天文学界普遍认为此距离在100光年以内,它就能够对地球的生物圈产生明显的影响,这样的超新星被称为近地超新星。有研究认为,在地球历史上的奥陶纪大灭绝,就是一颗近地超新星引起的,这次灭绝导致当时地球近60%的海洋生物消失。[78]

克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑--克莱因瓶的瓶颈和瓶身是相交的,换句话近代科学兴起的先驱者、是捍卫科学真理并为此献身的殉道士。有另一种说法认为,近代以来关于罗马梵蒂冈的地心说和哥白尼的日心说的斗争是被严重夸大的。布鲁诺1600年遭受火刑的原因,并非因知行星围绕太阳作圆周运动。然而,人们是否能接受哥白尼提出的新的宇宙模式呢?全世界的人——尤其是权力极大的天主教会是否相信太阳是宇宙中心这一说法呢?由于害怕教会的惩罚,哥白尼在世时不敢公开他的发现。1543年,这一发现才公诸天下。即使在那个时候,哥白尼的发现还不断受到教会高无上的真理,凡是违背圣经的学说,Eighteen months passed. The Chief was in Quebec with Hannah and Abbie awaiting the arrival of Rug, who had been sent by his father to the Mother Land to dispose of two cargoes of timber. It was an unusually cold evening in June. Snow had been falling all day. The neighboring hills were covered with large feathery crystals, which, however, soon melted as the sun appeared for a moment before sinking behind the gray walls of the Castle St. Louis. Just as the evening gun was fired, news had reached the union Hotel that a vessel had been sighted near the Island of Orleans. It was ascertained that it w against a sea voyage from the time they left Liverpool. “Nor is this all,” he said; “I have something better still on board for the new settlement, namely, twenty-five English families, who are going to take up land in the township and pay for it in work.” “And who nearly turned mutineers,” added the captain, slapping him on the shoulder, “did they not, Wright?” “How was that?” asked the Chief. “When we boarded the vessel at Liverpool,” replied Rug, “some were bright and cheerful, but most of them were in tears, which showed that they did not leave the Old Land without a struggle. We soon weighed anchor and were under sail with a fair wind, but it came round to the east and blew fresher, so that we were forced to come to anchor not far from the place we left. The ship, as you may see, was fitted up for the timber trade, and has only a small cabin or quarter-deck. On each side are ranged two tiers of berths for passengers providing their own bedding. Along the open space in the middle we placed two rows of large chests which were used sometimes as tables, sometimes as seats—all of which I shall show you presently. There was much noise and confusion before all found berths; crying children, swearing sailors, scolding women, who had not been able to secure the beds they wanted, produced a chorus of a very melancholy nature. The disagreeableness of it was heightened by the darkness of the night and the rolling and a new and better country. “As we neared the banks of Newfoundland a most extraordinary phenomenon was produced by the dashing of the salt water against the bow of the ship in the evening. The water seemed on fire and produced a very fine effect. The next day a mass of ice appeared about two hundred yards distant. It was almost half a mile in length, and was moving south-east. Soon after we found the channel between Cape Breton and Cape Ray, and got into the ice. The captain sent eight men to the bow with fenders. One piece knocked splinters off the bow and threw us all down. About five days later we reached the Island of Anticosti, but I was too ill to see it. We saw porpoises in shoals plunging about the ship, while the sailors tried to harpoon them beneath the bow. About two hundred and eighty miles below Quebec the pilot came on board. His number was painted in large characters on his sail as well as on his boat. He had a cask of fresh water and some maple sugar, which he sold at an extortionate price to the passengers. “Near Bic Island we saw whales spouting water at a great height, and a habitant came out in a boat with a large basket of eggs, which he disposed of at a shilling per dozen, and so we continued on until the domes and towers of Quebec came in sight and I began to realize the inexpressible joy of being at home once more.”* * Diary of Rev. Robert Bell and letters of R. Wright. Rug was a young man of great executive ability, a young man whose word could be relied upon with absolute certainty, a young man who proved himself the very soul of honor in all his business transactions.都被斥为“异端邪说”,凡是反对神权统治的人,都被处以火刑。新兴的资产阶级为自己的生存和发展,掀起了一场反对封建制度和教会迷信思想的斗争,出现了人文主义的思潮。他们使用的战斗武器,就是未被神学染污的古希腊的哲学、科学和文艺。这就是震撼欧洲的文艺复兴运动。文艺复兴首先发生于意大利,很快就扩大到波兰及欧洲其他国家。与此同时,商业的活跃也促进了对外贸易的发展。在“黄金”这个符咒的驱使下,许多欧洲冒险者远航非洲、印度及整个远东地区。远洋航行需要丰富的天文和地理知识,从实际中积累起来的观测资料,使人们感到当时流行的“地静天动”的宇宙 CHAPTER IV. AN INDIAN SUITOR. 1803. Machecawa and his friend O’Jawescawa became frequent visitors at the Wigwam. They would come in the morning, uninvited, and sit silently all day long before the open fire and observe all that was going on. The spinning-wheel and hand-loom were objects of unceasing interest to them, and though it proved a great distraction to the children in their studies, and to the girls in the performance of their domestic duties, to have them there, they were always treated not only with respect but with consideration and kindness. One morning Machecawa stood gazing intently into the fire. His face wore an expression of perplexity. At length he turned to the White Chief, who was explaining a mathematical problem to one of his boys, and said: “Big Injun, he want to speak his thoughts from books. He want to know white man’s Manitou.” “May I teach him, father? Just for an hour every day?” said Chrissy, a tall, fair, thoughtful girl of seventyour neck, Machecawa?” said Bearie, the second son, a short, well knit, sturdy-looking youth of eighteen, whose every expression reflected a bright, happy, generous disposition. “She am my Manitou,” replied the Indian. &q39;you no eat no teeng seex days.’ By em by I am dream some teeng, me, dat some teeng she am my manitou. She help me kill beeg bear; she mak dem Iroquois dogs run like one wild moose. My fadder she am pleese; she make my manitou on my arm—see!” he said, rolling up his sleeve. On his shoulder was the rude outline of a fish, which had been tatooed with sharp bones and with the juice of berries rubbed in. “But what is in the little bag?” asked Bearie. “Will you let me see it?” After a good deal of reluctance he gave in at last, and two curious boys untied the precious parcel, while the others, equally curious, looked over his shoulders at a few old broken fish bones which were all the little bag contained. “Well, old man,” said Bearie, slowly replacing the sacred relics, “we put our faith in something better than that. The white man trusts the Great Spirit in heaven to care for him and to take him to heaven when he dies.” “Any bear in hebben?” asked the Indian. “No,” said Bearie, “only good people.” “Dat hebben she am no good for big Injun,” said Machecawa, sadly. “De happy hunting ground she am full of moose, buffalo, bear, beaver. She am far, far away at de end of land, where de sun she sleep—two, tree moons away. One beeg dog she am cross, an’ she bark at dead Injun, but he go on, an’ on, an’ on, an’ den he am glad.” It began to dawn upon the vigilant mother at length that it was not so much the wonders of civilization nor the desire to “speak his thoughts from books” that led Machecawa day after day to the Wigwam, as an ever-increasing interest in her fun-loving daughter, Abbie, who was a year younger than Chrissy, and who seemed unconscious of the fact that the eyes of the red chief were ever upon her.学说值得怀疑,这就要求人们进一步去探索宇宙的秘密,从而推进了天文学和地理学的发展。1492年,意大利著名的航海家哥伦布发现新大陆,麦哲伦和他的同伴绕地球一周,证明地球是圆形的,使人们开始真正认识地球。[4] 对他国的影响 在教会严密控制下的中世纪,也发生过轰轰烈烈的宗教革命。因为天主教的很多教义不符合圣经的教诲,而加入了太多教皇的个人意志以及各类神学家的自身成果,所以很多信徒开始质疑天主教的教义和组织,发起回归圣经的行动来。捷克的爱国主义者、布拉格大学校长扬·胡斯(1369~1415年)在君士坦丁堡的宗教会议上公开谴责德意志封建主与天主教会对捷克的压迫和剥削。他虽然被反动教会处以火刑,但他的革命活动在社会上引起了强烈的反应。捷克农民在胡斯党人的旗帜下举行起义,这次运动也波及波兰。1517年,在德国,马丁·路德(1483~1546年)反对教会贩卖赎罪符,与罗马教皇公开决裂。1521年,路德又在沃尔姆国会上揭露罗马教廷的罪恶,并提出建立基督教新教的主张。新教的教义得到许多国家的支持,波兰也深受影响。

中国人为什么能有效的控制住疫情:

那是因为我们有社会主义制度,我们拥有集中办大事的力量;
是因为我们有无数英雄逆行,中华民族从来不会被任何困难吓倒压垮;
那是因为我们有祖国强大动员能力,全民服从,效率极高;
那是因为我们有基层执行能力,严查到每家每户;
那是因为我们有民众认知,积极响应祖国号召,全民抗疫;
那是因为我们有社会监管系统的强大······

世卫组织总干事说,我从未见过像中国这样的动员。

是啊,有哪个国家,能一胜令下14亿国人不出门?有哪个国家,能村村设防,路路设检?又有哪个国家,能像我们一样,以强大动员能力,火速盖起火神山雷神山医院?



克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑-- “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 [67] 在太 CHAPTER X. TOBACCO OFFERINGS. 1808. It was a beautiful moonlight evening in August. A shadowy haze lingered over the river, which glistened and sparkled in the moonlight. The Chief and several members of his family were seated on the beach in front of the Wigwam listening to the Honorable Joseph Papineau, who, with his son, Louis Joseph, had come up in a canoe to see the falls. The former had recently purchased from Bishop Laval the unsettled seigniory of Petit Nation, and had erected an unpretentious cottage, which he occupied during the summer months. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan’s “Types of Canadian Women” (copyright, 1903), by permission. HON. LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU AND MADAME PAPINEAU. From Morgan’s “Types of Canadian Women” (copyright, 1903), by permission. “It was a lovely vision,” said Mr. Papineau, who had just performed the feat of canoeing to the foot of the Chaudiere Falls for the first time. “On our return we climbed the rugged cliff on the south side, and never shall I forget the panorama that spread out before us. The sun, sinking slowly behind the Laurentian hills, had clothed himself with a robe of splendor. The long reflections lay soft on the waters of the river below. The clouds of ascending mist from the Chaudiere took a thousand shades of color as the western sky faded slowly from crimson into gold and from gold to green and gray, and finally displayed dark shapes, out of which imagination might well have formed a thousand monsters.* * Louis Joseph, afterwards known as the Demosthenes of Canada, and who almost succeeded in making Canada a Republic, with himself as President, was evidently much impressed with the scene, which he described as follows: “Le soleil etait pret decendre sous l’horison, la mureille tout limpide etait d’une transparence vivre, tout penetree de lumiere vaguement prismatiseé.” “As we watched the gathering shadows my thoughts went back two hundred years, to the time when Champlain went on his first trip up the ‘Riviere des Algoumequins,’ as he called it. About two years before he took the trip he sent Nicholas de Vignan, a young Frenchman, up the river with some friendly Indians, and Nicholas had returned with the marvellous story that he had reached the North Sea. He said that the journey could be made in a few days. He also gave an account of having seen the wreck of an English ship. “Champlain was completely taken in, and lost no time in starting off to verify the discovery for which the world had been looking for some time. His fleet consisted of two canoes with two Indians and three Frenchmen, one of whom was Dg employment to over one hundred men. Fortunately for the pioneers of the Ottawa, they were not dependent upon the small revenue derived from the cultivation of the land, but had other resources which afforded them much greater remuneration. The British Navy, which hitherto had been dependent upon Russia for its cordage and lumber, had to look elsewhere for its supply of hemp and timber, owing to the ports of the Baltic having been closed to British ships. The price of hemp having risen from £25 to £118 per ton, they undertook the cultivation of it, and raised over three-fourths of the amount raised in Lower Canada at that time. The exportation of lumber and vegetable alkali, or potash, were also great sources of revenue. In the new clearances were tons of wood ashes from which the lye was extracted and boiled till it looked like molten iron, a barrel of which sold at that time for thirty dollars. Prosperity and success crowned every commercial enterprise upon which they ventured until fire swept every mill, factory and dwelling in the thriving little village out of existence, including thousands of dollars in cash in a small safe in the office, quantities of wheat, hemp, sawn lumber, laths and general merchandise. As there was no compensation in the way of insurance, the loss was much felt. Philemon Wright was not the man to be deterred from climbing the ladder of success, even though he had to mount it by the rungs of adverse circumstances. Though the loss sustained was great, almost overwhelming, he rose above it with a courage which yielded not to disappointment or failure. The cause of the fire long remained a mystery. That it was the work of an incendiary was beyond question. Various theories were advocated by the settlers, but suspicion rested upon Machecawa, who, it was alleged, had been seen by the bookkeeper at a late hour lingering about the mills, a suspicion which gained no credence with the Chief and his family.阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的“奥尔特云”。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这就是彗 [76]  在超新星爆发的过程中所释放的能量,需要我们的太阳燃烧900亿年才能与之相当。[77]  超新星研究有着关乎人类自身命运的深层意义。如果一颗超新星爆发的位置非常接近地球,目前国际天文学界普遍认为此距离在100光年以内,它就能够对地球的生物圈产生明显的影响,这样的超新星被称为近地超新星。有研究认为,在地球历史上的奥陶纪大灭绝,就是一颗近地超新星引起的,这次灭绝导致当时地球近60%的海洋生物消失。[78]

克莱因瓶是一个不可定向的二维紧流形,而球面或轮胎面是可 克莱因瓶 克莱因瓶 定向的二维紧流形。如果观察克莱因瓶,有一点似乎令人困惑--克莱因瓶的瓶颈和瓶身是相交的,换句话近代科学兴起的先驱者、是捍卫科学真理并为此献身的殉道士。有另一种说法认为,近代以来关于罗马梵蒂冈的地心说和哥白尼的日心说的斗争是被严重夸大的。布鲁诺1600年遭受火刑的原因,并非因知行星围绕太阳作圆周运动。然而,人们是否能接受哥白尼提出的新的宇宙模式呢?全世界的人——尤其是权力极大的天主教会是否相信太阳是宇宙中心这一说法呢?由于害怕教会的惩罚,哥白尼在世时不敢公开他的发现。1543年,这一发现才公诸天下。即使在那个时候,哥白尼的发现还不断受到教会高无上的真理,凡是违背圣经的学说,Eighteen months passed. The Chief was in Quebec with Hannah and Abbie awaiting the arrival of Rug, who had been sent by his father to the Mother Land to dispose of two cargoes of timber. It was an unusually cold evening in June. Snow had been falling all day. The neighboring hills were covered with large feathery crystals, which, however, soon melted as the sun appeared for a moment before sinking behind the gray walls of the Castle St. Louis. Just as the evening gun was fired, news had reached the union Hotel that a vessel had been sighted near the Island of Orleans. It was ascertained that it w against a sea voyage from the time they left Liverpool. “Nor is this all,” he said; “I have something better still on board for the new settlement, namely, twenty-five English families, who are going to take up land in the township and pay for it in work.” “And who nearly turned mutineers,” added the captain, slapping him on the shoulder, “did they not, Wright?” “How was that?” asked the Chief. “When we boarded the vessel at Liverpool,” replied Rug, “some were bright and cheerful, but most of them were in tears, which showed that they did not leave the Old Land without a struggle. We soon weighed anchor and were under sail with a fair wind, but it came round to the east and blew fresher, so that we were forced to come to anchor not far from the place we left. The ship, as you may see, was fitted up for the timber trade, and has only a small cabin or quarter-deck. On each side are ranged two tiers of berths for passengers providing their own bedding. Along the open space in the middle we placed two rows of large chests which were used sometimes as tables, sometimes as seats—all of which I shall show you presently. There was much noise and confusion before all found berths; crying children, swearing sailors, scolding women, who had not been able to secure the beds they wanted, produced a chorus of a very melancholy nature. The disagreeableness of it was heightened by the darkness of the night and the rolling and a new and better country. “As we neared the banks of Newfoundland a most extraordinary phenomenon was produced by the dashing of the salt water against the bow of the ship in the evening. The water seemed on fire and produced a very fine effect. The next day a mass of ice appeared about two hundred yards distant. It was almost half a mile in length, and was moving south-east. Soon after we found the channel between Cape Breton and Cape Ray, and got into the ice. The captain sent eight men to the bow with fenders. One piece knocked splinters off the bow and threw us all down. About five days later we reached the Island of Anticosti, but I was too ill to see it. We saw porpoises in shoals plunging about the ship, while the sailors tried to harpoon them beneath the bow. About two hundred and eighty miles below Quebec the pilot came on board. His number was painted in large characters on his sail as well as on his boat. He had a cask of fresh water and some maple sugar, which he sold at an extortionate price to the passengers. “Near Bic Island we saw whales spouting water at a great height, and a habitant came out in a boat with a large basket of eggs, which he disposed of at a shilling per dozen, and so we continued on until the domes and towers of Quebec came in sight and I began to realize the inexpressible joy of being at home once more.”* * Diary of Rev. Robert Bell and letters of R. Wright. Rug was a young man of great executive ability, a young man whose word could be relied upon with absolute certainty, a young man who proved himself the very soul of honor in all his business transactions.都被斥为“异端邪说”,凡是反对神权统治的人,都被处以火刑。新兴的资产阶级为自己的生存和发展,掀起了一场反对封建制度和教会迷信思想的斗争,出现了人文主义的思潮。他们使用的战斗武器,就是未被神学染污的古希腊的哲学、科学和文艺。这就是震撼欧洲的文艺复兴运动。文艺复兴首先发生于意大利,很快就扩大到波兰及欧洲其他国家。与此同时,商业的活跃也促进了对外贸易的发展。在“黄金”这个符咒的驱使下,许多欧洲冒险者远航非洲、印度及整个远东地区。远洋航行需要丰富的天文和地理知识,从实际中积累起来的观测资料,使人们感到当时流行的“地静天动”的宇宙 CHAPTER IV. AN INDIAN SUITOR. 1803. Machecawa and his friend O’Jawescawa became frequent visitors at the Wigwam. They would come in the morning, uninvited, and sit silently all day long before the open fire and observe all that was going on. The spinning-wheel and hand-loom were objects of unceasing interest to them, and though it proved a great distraction to the children in their studies, and to the girls in the performance of their domestic duties, to have them there, they were always treated not only with respect but with consideration and kindness. One morning Machecawa stood gazing intently into the fire. His face wore an expression of perplexity. At length he turned to the White Chief, who was explaining a mathematical problem to one of his boys, and said: “Big Injun, he want to speak his thoughts from books. He want to know white man’s Manitou.” “May I teach him, father? Just for an hour every day?” said Chrissy, a tall, fair, thoughtful girl of seventyour neck, Machecawa?” said Bearie, the second son, a short, well knit, sturdy-looking youth of eighteen, whose every expression reflected a bright, happy, generous disposition. “She am my Manitou,” replied the Indian. &q39;you no eat no teeng seex days.’ By em by I am dream some teeng, me, dat some teeng she am my manitou. She help me kill beeg bear; she mak dem Iroquois dogs run like one wild moose. My fadder she am pleese; she make my manitou on my arm—see!” he said, rolling up his sleeve. On his shoulder was the rude outline of a fish, which had been tatooed with sharp bones and with the juice of berries rubbed in. “But what is in the little bag?” asked Bearie. “Will you let me see it?” After a good deal of reluctance he gave in at last, and two curious boys untied the precious parcel, while the others, equally curious, looked over his shoulders at a few old broken fish bones which were all the little bag contained. “Well, old man,” said Bearie, slowly replacing the sacred relics, “we put our faith in something better than that. The white man trusts the Great Spirit in heaven to care for him and to take him to heaven when he dies.” “Any bear in hebben?” asked the Indian. “No,” said Bearie, “only good people.” “Dat hebben she am no good for big Injun,” said Machecawa, sadly. “De happy hunting ground she am full of moose, buffalo, bear, beaver. She am far, far away at de end of land, where de sun she sleep—two, tree moons away. One beeg dog she am cross, an’ she bark at dead Injun, but he go on, an’ on, an’ on, an’ den he am glad.” It began to dawn upon the vigilant mother at length that it was not so much the wonders of civilization nor the desire to “speak his thoughts from books” that led Machecawa day after day to the Wigwam, as an ever-increasing interest in her fun-loving daughter, Abbie, who was a year younger than Chrissy, and who seemed unconscious of the fact that the eyes of the red chief were ever upon her.学说值得怀疑,这就要求人们进一步去探索宇宙的秘密,从而推进了天文学和地理学的发展。1492年,意大利著名的航海家哥伦布发现新大陆,麦哲伦和他的同伴绕地球一周,证明地球是圆形的,使人们开始真正认识地球。[4] 对他国的影响 在教会严密控制下的中世纪,也发生过轰轰烈烈的宗教革命。因为天主教的很多教义不符合圣经的教诲,而加入了太多教皇的个人意志以及各类神学家的自身成果,所以很多信徒开始质疑天主教的教义和组织,发起回归圣经的行动来。捷克的爱国主义者、布拉格大学校长扬·胡斯(1369~1415年)在君士坦丁堡的宗教会议上公开谴责德意志封建主与天主教会对捷克的压迫和剥削。他虽然被反动教会处以火刑,但他的革命活动在社会上引起了强烈的反应。捷克农民在胡斯党人的旗帜下举行起义,这次运动也波及波兰。1517年,在德国,马丁·路德(1483~1546年)反对教会贩卖赎罪符,与罗马教皇公开决裂。1521年,路德又在沃尔姆国会上揭露罗马教廷的罪恶,并提出建立基督教新教的主张。新教的教义得到许多国家的支持,波兰也深受影响。

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世界第一大党、世界最坚强政党、世界最牛创业团队……



169. Don’t let yesterday use up too much of today. 别留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers) 170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up. 你不勇敢,没人替你坚强。171. If you don’t build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你没有梦想,那么你只能为别人的梦想打工。172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你给自己机会,你会发现你的世界可以很美丽。173. The difference in winning and losing is most often…not quitting. 赢与输的差别通常是–不放弃。(华特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我独一无二。175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜欢那些让我笑起来的人,就算是我不想笑的时候。176. Image a new story for your life and start living it. 为你的生命想一个全新剧本,并去倾情出演吧!177. I’d rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做个悲伤的智者,不如做个开心的傻子。178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未来属于那些相信梦想之美的人。(埃莉诺·罗斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使没有人为你鼓掌,也要优雅的谢幕,感谢自己的认真付出。180. Don’t let dream just be your dream. 别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. 今天的好计划胜过明天的完美计划。186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says ‘I’m possible’! 一切皆有可能!“不可能”的意思是:“不,可能。”(奥黛丽·赫本) 187. Life isn’t fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all. 生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. 无论多么艰难,都要继续前进,因为只有你放弃的那一刻,你才输了。     When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn’t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn’t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a “repo man,” picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn’t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter’s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah “John” Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mothe凝固的熔岩流。火星上常常有猛烈的大风,大风扬起沙尘能形成可以覆盖火星全球的特大型沙尘暴。每次沙尘暴可持续数个星期。火星两极的冰冠和火星大气中含有水份。从火星表面获得的探测数据证明,在远古时期,火星曾经有过液态的水,而且水量特别大。[51] 土星是离太阳第六颗行星,直径120536㎞,体积仅次于木星。主要由氢组成,还有少量的氦与微量元素,内部的核心包括岩石和冰,外围由数层金属氢和气体包裹着。地球距离土星13亿公里。土星的引力比地球强2.5倍,能够牵引太阳系内其它行星,使地球处于一个椭圆轨道中运行,并且与太阳保持适当距离,适宜生命繁衍。当土星轨道倾斜20度将使地球轨道比金星轨道更接近太阳,同时,这将导致火星完全离开太阳系。[52]  土星是已知唯一密度小于水的行星,假如能够将土星放入一个巨大的浴池之中,它将可以漂浮起来。土星有一个巨大的磁气圈和一个狂风肆虐的大气层,赤道附近的风速可达1800千米/时。在环绕土星运行的31颗卫星中间,土卫六是最大的一颗,比水星和月球还大,也是太阳系中唯一拥有浓厚大气层的卫星。[53] 天王星是离太阳第七颗行星,51118km。体积约为地球的65倍,在九大行星中仅次于木星和土星。天王星的大气层中83%是氢,15%为氦,2%为甲烷以及少量的乙炔和碳氢化合物。上层大气层的甲烷吸收红光,使天王星呈现蓝绿色。大气在固定纬度集结成云层,类似于木星和土星在纬线上鲜艳的条状色带。天王星云层的平均温度为零下193摄氏度。质量为8.6810±13×10²⁵kg,相当于地球质量的14.63倍。密度较小,只有1.24克/立方厘米,为海王星密度值的74.7%。[54] 恒星 恒星 海王星是离太阳的第八颗行星,直径49532千米。海王星绕太阳运转的轨道半径为45亿千米,公转一周需要165年。海王星的直径和天王星类似,质量比天王星略大一些。海王星和天王星的主要大气成分都是氢和氦,内部结构也极为相近,所以说海王星与天王星是一对孪生兄弟。[55]  海王星有太阳系最强烈的风,测量到的时速高达2100公里。海王星云顶的温度是-218 °C,是太阳系最冷的地区之一。海王星核心的温度约为7000 °C,可以和太阳的表面比较。海王星在1846年9月23日被发现,是唯一利用数学预测而非有计划的观测发现的行星。[56] 冥王星,位于海王星以外的柯伊伯带内侧,是柯伊伯带中已知的最大天体。[57]  直径约为2370±20km,是地球直径的18.5%。[58]  2006年8月24日,国际天文学联合会大会24日投票决定,不再将传统九大行星之一的冥王星视为行星,而将其列入“矮行星”。大会通过的决议规定,“行星”指的是围绕太阳运转、自身引力足以克服其刚体力而使天体呈圆球状、能够清除其轨道附近其他物体的天体。在太阳系传统的“九大行星”中,只有水星、金星、地球、火星、木星、土星、天王星和海王星符合这些要求。冥王星由于其轨道与海王星的轨道相交,不符合新的行星定义,因此被自动降级为“矮行星”。[59]  冥王星的表面温度大概在-238到-228℃之间。冥王星的成份由70%岩石和30%冰水混合而成的。地表上光亮的部分可能覆盖着一些固体氮以及少量 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 卫星拍月球经过地球,可见清晰月球背面 [60] 的固体甲烷和一氧化碳,冥王星表面的黑暗部分可能是一些基本的有机物质或是由宇宙射线引发的光化学反应。冥王星的大气层主要由氮和少量的一氧化碳及甲烷组成。大气极其稀薄,地面压强只有少量微帕。[61] 地球是离太阳第三颗行星,是我们人类的家乡,尽管地球是太阳系中一颗普通的行星,但它在许多方面都是独一无二的。比如,它是太阳系中唯一一颗面积大部分被水覆盖的行星,也是目前所知唯一一颗有生命存在的星球。质量M=5.9742 ×10^24 公斤,表面温度:t = – 30 ~ +45。[62]  英国科研人员在《天体生物学》杂志上报告说,如果没有小行星撞击等可能剧烈改变环境的事件发生,地球适宜人类居住的时间还剩约17.5亿年,不过人为造成的气候变化可能缩短这一时间。[63] 彗星是由灰尘和冰块组成的太阳系中的一类小天体,绕日运动。[64]  科学家使用探测器对彗星的化学遗留物进行分析,发现其主要成份为氨、甲烷、硫化氢、氰化氢和甲醛。科学家得出结论称,彗星的气味闻起来像是臭鸡蛋、马尿、酒精和苦杏仁的气味综合。[65-66] “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 “67P/楚留莫夫-格拉希门克”彗星 [67] 在太阳系的周围还包裹着一个庞大的“奥尔特云”。星云内分布着不计其数的冰块、雪团和碎石。其中的某些会受太阳引力影响飞入内太阳系,这学说,在原有的轨道(或称小天体轨道)上又增加了更多的天体运行轨道。这一模式称每颗行星都沿着一个小轨道作圆周运行,而小轨道又沿着该行星的大轨道绕地球作圆周运动。几百年之后,这一模式的漏洞越来越明显。科学家们又在这个模式上增加了许多轨道,行星就这样沿着一道又一道的轨道作圆周运动。哥白尼想用“现代”(16世纪的)技术来改进托勒密的测量结果,以期取消一些小轨道。在长达近20年的时间里,哥白尼不辞辛劳日夜测量行星的位置,但其测量获得的结果仍然与托勒密的天体运行模式没有多少差别。哥白尼想知道在另一个运行着的行星上观察这些行星的运行情况会是什么样的。基于这种设想,哥白尼萌发了一个念头:假如地球在运行中,那么这些行星的运行看上去会是什么情况呢?这一设想在他脑海里变得清晰起来了。一年里,哥白尼在不同的时间、不同的距离从地球上观察行星,每一个行星的情况都不相同,这是他意识到地球不可能位于星星轨道的中心。经过20年的观测,哥白尼发现唯独太阳的周年变化不明显。这意味着地球和太阳的距离始终没有改变。如果地球不是宇宙的中心,那么宇宙的中心就是太阳。的发现才使牛顿有能力确定运动定律和万有引力定律。哥白尼的日心宇宙体系既然是时代的产物,它就不能不受到时代的限制。反对神学的不彻底性,同时表现在哥白尼的某些观点上,他的体系是存在缺陷的。哥白尼所指的宇宙是局限在一个小的范围内的,具体来说,他的宇宙结构就是今天我们所熟知的太阳系,即以太阳为中心的天体系统。宇宙既然有它的中心,就必须有它的边界,哥白尼虽然否定了托勒玫的“九重天”,但他却保留了一层恒星天,尽管他回避了宇宙是否有限这个问题,但实际上他是相信恒星天球是宇宙的“外壳”,他仍然相信天体只能按照所谓完美的圆形轨道运动,所以哥白尼的宇宙体系,仍然包含着不动的中心天体。但是作为近代自然科学的奠基人,哥白尼的历史功绩是伟大的。确认地球不是宇宙的中心,而是行星之一,从而掀起了一场天文学上根本性的革命,是人类探求客观真理道路上的里程碑。哥白尼的伟大成就,不仅铺平了通向近代天文学的道路,而且开创了整个自然界科学向前迈进的新时代。从哥白尼时代起,脱离教会束缚的自然科学和哲学开始获得飞跃的发展。哥白尼的科学成就,是他所处时代的产物,又转过来推动了时代的发展。顺应时代变化 十五、六世纪的欧洲,正是从封建社会向资本主义社会转变的关键时期,在这一二百年间,社会发生了巨大的变化。14世纪ndali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their 别让梦想只停留在梦里。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 没有笑声的一天是浪费了的一天。(卓别林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,见的世面多了,你会发现原来在意的那些结根本算不了什么。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功关键都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 开心一点吧,管它会怎样。baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve’s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. “My parents were very open with me about that,” he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. “So does that mean your real parents didn’t want you?” the girl asked. “Lightning bolts went off in my head,” according to Jobs. “I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, ‘No, you have to understand.’ They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, ‘We specifically picked you out.’ Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.” Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. “I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,” said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. “He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.” Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. “Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,” he said. “It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.” Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs “full of broken glass,” and it helps to explain some of his behavior. “He who is abandoned is an abandoner,” she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. “The key question about Steve is why he can’t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,” he said. “That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve’s life.” Jobs dismissed this. “There’s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that’s ridiculous,” he insisted. “Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I’ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.” He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his “adoptive” parents or implied that they were not his “real” parents. “They were my parents 1,000%,” he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: “They were my sperm and egg bank. That’s not harsh, it’s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.” Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. “Steve, this is your workbench now,” he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father’s focus on craftsmanship. “I thought my dad’s sense of design was pretty good,” he said, “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.” Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. “He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn’t see.” His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. “I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn’t interested in getting his hands dirty,” Paul later recalled. “He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness. 你必须十分努力,才能看起来毫不费力。190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像骑单车,只有不断前进,才能保持平衡。(爱因斯坦) 191. Be thankful for what you have.You’ll end up having more. 拥有一颗感恩的心,最终你会得到更多。192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一种内心的感觉,并反映在你的眼睛里。(索菲亚·罗兰) 193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows. 朋友的作用,就是让你快乐加倍,痛苦减半。194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you. 当你真心渴望某样东西时,整个宇宙都会来帮忙。echanical things.” “I wasn’t that into fixing cars,” Jobs admitted. “But I was eager to hang out with my dad.” Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. “He’s in the engine room, and he’s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.” Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. “My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he’d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.” Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. “Every weekend, there’d be a junkyard trip. We’d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.” He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. “He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.” This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. “My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn’t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.” The Jobses’ house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision of simple modern homes for the American “everyman,” Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. “Eichler did a great thing,” Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. “His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.” Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. “I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. “He wasn’t that bright,” Jobs recalled, “but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, ‘I can do that.’ He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.” As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, “What is it you don’t understand about the universe?” Jobs replied, “I don’t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.” He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. “You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn’t good at that and it wasn’t in his nature. I admired him for that.” Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one exampl What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne’er-do-wells tended to be engineers. “When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,” Jobs recalled. “But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.” He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. “The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,” he said. “I fell totally in love with it.” Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. “You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,” he recalled. “It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.” In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. “Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.” “No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.” “I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’” Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father’s competence and savvy. “He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn’t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.” Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. “It was a very big moment that’s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.” This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. “Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.” So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. “I was kind of bored for the first few years

这些赞誉,属于今天的中国共产党!

但是在光辉的背后,中国共产党的另一面,却足以令所有妄想与之为战的敌人胆寒!

中共是历史上淘汰率最高的政党

建党之初,在上海石库门的小屋子里,谁看好中国共产党了?

1921年建党,当时中国社会200多个政治党派,中共成立了,只是其中一个。

每天成立的组织和解散的组织一样多。

就连当时发起成立这个党的中间的一些人,也没能想到,共产党28年以后能夺取全国政权。

中国共产党是在凄风苦雨中成立的。

当时,党更像是一个瘦弱的小孩,这孩子能长多大许多人没把握。

共产党刚刚成立不久,就出现问题。

1922年陈公博脱党,

1923年李达脱党,

1924年李汉俊脱党,

1924年周佛海脱党,

1927年包惠僧脱党;

1930年刘仁静被党开除,

1938年张国焘被党开除。

13个代表,自己走掉的、被党开除的有7个,

其中陈公博、周佛海当了大汉奸,抗战胜利后被国民政府判处死刑。

这7个人,我做了这样的假设,如果历史是可知的,他们会不会做这样的糊涂之事?

当然,如果可知的话,他们肯定不会这样做。

28年之后夺取全国政权,

用得着当汉奸吗?

用得着当军统特务吗?

不知道未来,就这样选择了自己的人生道路。

这13个人中,

王尽美1925年牺牲;

邓恩铭1931年牺牲;

何叔衡1935年牺牲;

陈潭秋1943年牺牲。

从头走到尾的只有两个人:

毛泽东!董必武!

中国共产党所遭受的是世界政党史上前所未有的残酷境遇,

党内的领导人,像被割韭菜一样一茬一茬地被敌人消灭。

周恩来曾感慨:“敌人可以在三五分钟内消灭我们的领袖,我们却无法在三五年内将他们造就出来。

全世界没有哪一个政党遭受过中共这般炼狱地火似的考验。

1927年,大革命失败后蒋介石发动“四一二”反革命政变,共产党人尸横遍野,血流成河,李大钊、罗亦农、赵世炎、陈延年、李启汉、萧楚女、邓培、向警予、熊雄、夏明翰、陈乔年、张太雷等领导人相继遇害。严酷的白色恐怖中,组织被打散,党员同党组织失去联系,彷徨者动摇者纷纷脱党,有的公开在报纸上刊登反共启事,并指认捉拿搜捕自己的同志。

伴随中国革命的胜利,党后来的领袖都是无数牺牲者中的幸存者。

他们的意志是由严酷的环境造就的。

这种严酷、凶险的环境是难以想象的,苏俄也不能与我们相比。

列宁被捕流放2次,托洛茨基被捕流放2次,布哈林被捕流放3次,加米涅夫被判处终生流放,斯大林被捕流放7次。

但蒋介石的政治术语中,根本没有流放这个词,

他的常用词是“见电立决”、“斩立决”、“立决”。

正是中国革命的残酷性,大浪淘沙一般,淘汰率极高。

当时背叛者比比皆是。

中央一号向忠发被捕叛变、

中共特科负责人顾顺章被捕叛变、

上海中央局负责人李竹声和盛忠亮被捕叛变、

中共军区参谋长龚楚叛变,

还有

闽赣分区司令员宋清泉、

红十六军军长孔荷宠、

赣粤分区参谋长向湘林、

湘赣省委书记陈洪时、

闽赣分区政治部主任彭祐、

闽浙赣省委书记曾洪易、

红十军副军长倪宝树、

闽北分区司令员李德胜、

瑞金红军游击司令部政委杨世珠等,

统统当了叛徒。

中共的淘汰与筛选从党的高层领导就开始。

有些共产党员极度现实地抛弃梦想,现实到葬送了自己。

张申府就是一个活生生的例子。

中共建党“南陈北李”,

陈独秀、李大钊之后如果有第三个重要领导人的话就是张申府。

张申府,北大教授,李大钊的左膀右臂,与李大钊共同组建北京共产主义小组。

他发展夫人刘清扬成为中共第一位女党员,又介绍周恩来入党。

历史地位是何等重要。

张申府与毛泽东也发生过深度关系,

毛泽东当时只是北大图书馆的图书管理员,也就是临时工。

做这项工作要填写图书卡片,毛泽东的字龙飞凤舞,张申府将他训斥一番,要求重新填写。

1925年,因党的发展前景不明甚至暗淡,张申府脱党了。

1938年发起成立民盟。

1948年被民盟开除。

为什么呢?

1948年,中国人民解放军已转入战略进攻阶段,胜局已定。

张申府在这时写文章《呼吁和平》,支持蒋介石“戡乱政策”,骂解放军是“匪”。

张申府夫人、中共第一位女共产党员刘清扬在《人民日报》刊登离婚启事:

“张申府背叛民主,为虎作伥,刘清扬严予指责”。

并宣布与张申府一刀两断。

    

时人惊呼:“申府糊涂啊!”

张申府回道:“我那篇文章得了3000块大洋的稿费,我当时真的很需要这3000块钱。”

真是令人又惊又怒。

龚楚,中共最早从事农民运动的三位领导者之一,与澎湃、毛泽东相提并论。

1928年初,朱德、陈毅率南昌起义余部辗转粤北,遇见的第一个共产党员就是龚楚,由龚楚带领上了井冈山。

1928年6月,湖南省委致信红四军军委:“前委书记由毛泽东担任,常务委员会由三人组织:泽东、朱德、龚楚。”

后来一段时期,中共中央和湖南省委给红四军前委的信都称之为“朱、毛、龚”。

1935年龚楚背叛共产党投向了国民党,

1949年龚楚又背叛了国民党。

1949年,解放军解放两广,龚楚作为国民党中将被迫起义,向当年他作为朱毛龚红军高级领导人时手下的连长后成为营长的林彪投降。

后来,龚楚跑到了香港,又前往南美。

1995年7月,龚楚在家乡广东乐昌市长来镇去世。

张国焘曾经和毛泽东一样都是中共极具领袖气质的人物。

张国焘与毛泽东有很多相似点。

两人都是青年知识分子。

两个人都完成了青年知识分子与工农大众的结合,

毛泽东在中央苏区取得了农民出身将领的衷心拥护。

而张国焘在鄂豫皖苏区也取得了农民出身将领的衷心拥护。

两个人在土地革命战争中都卓有成效地创建和领导了两块最大的苏区。

按照共产国际的眼光,两人脑后都有反骨,

两个人都要走自己的道路,且都有一把刷子。

1938年,陕甘宁边区政府副主席张国焘叛逃。

周恩来带着李克农追,

一路从延安追到武汉,苦口婆心劝张国焘。

但,他未回头。

张国焘叛逃的时候距离中共胜利还有十一年。

1947年,张国焘任军统中将,是戴笠手下的特务。

1947年至1948年,张国焘见中共即将获得全面胜利,立刻急于撇清与国民党的关系,成立第三党,他想在国民党与共产党之间调和。

但是大势已去,

1949年,张国焘跑到香港,

1976年死于加拿大多伦多养老院。

我一直想:

张国焘最后的神志中,他是否记得1935年6月一、四方面军在川西会合,他骑一匹白色的高头大马在十余骑警卫簇拥下飞驰两河口,毛泽东率领全体政治局委员走出三里路,立于蒙蒙细雨中恭候的情景?

长期被边缘化的毛泽东终成中共核心

边缘性的力量,从中国政治舞台的边缘走到东方政治舞台的中心,靠的是领袖人物的历史自觉和责任担当,其中毛泽东居功至伟。

毛泽东长期处于中国共产党的边缘,

中国共产党从1921年建党,到1935年遵义会议选择毛泽东,经历了多少领导人?

陈独秀、

瞿秋白、

向忠发、

李立三、

王明、

博古,

我们按照苏俄革命的基本道路指导中国革命,中国共产党撞磕得头破血流。

1935年遵义会议对毛泽东的选择,不是山头妥协的结果,不是利益集团平衡的结果,是中国共产党对胜利渴望的选择。

十四年的斗争实践证明,只有毛泽东的道路是中国革命胜利的唯一道路,不是唯二的。

还有其他道路?全试过了,没有!

毛泽东是中国共产党所有领导人中第一个,也是唯一一个解决了“中国的红色政权为什么能够存在”这个中国革命最根本的问题的人。

武汉疫情背后:中共不为人知的另一面让某些国家胆寒!

毛泽东走的是独立自主之路。

毛泽东提出,“工农武装割据,农村包围城市”,政治上创造了中国共产党人的新理论——毛泽东思想,军事上建立了中国共产党人自己的武装,经济上也完全摆脱了对共产国际的依赖。

我认为,第三条同样重要。

一个政党、一个国家、一个民族和一个人一样,没有经济独立,其他都是无米之炊。

毛泽东的路是“打土豪分田地”,这不但成为红色政权政治动员的基础,更成为中国共产党经济独立的基础。只有独立的经济来源,才有独立的政治和军事基础,才能独立地选择自己的领袖,独立地制定自己的路线。

在这个基础上,毛泽东提出了著名的论断,“星星之火,可以燎原”。中国找到了一条完全独立的道路,经济的、政治的、军事的,这才是一个完整的中国特色的革命道路。

八一南昌起义22500人,两个月后剩800人;

1927年毛泽东领导秋收起义,20天后5000人剩1000。

这支队伍不是从胜利走向胜利的,而是从惨败走向胜利的。

就这么点人数,就这么点力量。

毛泽东当年把队伍拉到井冈山,探索中国革命胜利道路,党表彰他了吗?没有,相反,党处分了他!

秋收起义让你打长沙,你却带兵跑到了远离长沙的井冈山,这是严重的右倾逃跑主义错误,就撤销了他的临时政治局候补委员的职务。

但是,职务被撤销了,毛泽东还是继续干,不像我们今天,撤销了就不干了。

毛泽东被三次撤销中委,八次受到严重警告,但还是继续在干。

因为他身上有最珍贵一点,就是有深刻的历史自觉。

武汉疫情背后:中共不为人知的另一面让某些国家胆寒!

什么叫历史自觉?

一是对社会运行规律的深刻领悟;

二是对历史发展前景的主动影响。

毛泽东终其一生都是这样,从来不相信命运的摆布,从来主张“舍得一身剐,敢把皇帝拉下马”,从来不安于现状而要改变现状。

中共历经艰难,但是最大的幸运就是出现了伟大的领袖毛泽东!

先有伟人后有伟业,先有真人后有真理。

怀抱理想主义做事业,多数时候会头破血流,

但如果能够成功,必定是一个伟大的事业。

事实证明,党的核心是伟大事业成功的根本保证。

党的核心聚集大批坚定的信仰追随者

有一批坚定的信仰追随者,是中国共产党的幸运!

1925年10月第二次东征期间,有一次第三师和广东军阀林虎的队伍相遇,在华阳附近被围,情况危急。

兵败如山倒之时,蒋还站在那里大声叫喊,陈赓见状上去背起蒋就跑,背了三里多路,一直跑至河边上船摆渡过了河,方才脱险。

蒋后来感慨道:“幸仗总理在天之灵,出奇制胜,转危为安。”

话虽这么说,却也知道是陈赓实实在在救了他一命。

仗着这一层关系,如果陈赓待在国民党里,可谓“前程似锦”。

但陈赓从内心看不起蒋介石。

2005年一位退到台湾的国民党军人回到大陆,和陈赓的家里人说,陈赓当年看不起蒋,其实是缘于一件小事,他嫌蒋介石在作战指挥间隙还打开收音机听上海的股市,认为蒋不是一个真正的革命者。

陈赓离蒋而去时编了一个什么理由?就像我们惯常的理由一样,老母病重,需要照顾。

陈赓就这样走了。

他先去苏联学习,再回到上海时跟着周恩来的特科“红队”干。

1931年陈赓在鄂豫皖苏区作战,在第四次反围剿中身负重伤,鄂豫皖苏区没有办法治好他的伤,只好把他秘密转移到上海,正好赶上了顾顺章叛变。

顾顺章把陈赓给指认了,蒋介石一听说把陈赓抓了,大喜过望,他想把他劝过来。

    

一天,蒋身边的人兴奋地跟陈赓说,校长要来看你。

陈赓坚持不见。

来人说,委员长已经走到门口了,你不见也得见。

蒋介石进来后,陈赓在病房里抓起一张报纸挡住脸。

蒋明白了,陈赓不想见他。

蒋只好离开,到了病房的走廊尽头还大喊,怎么就这样了呢,怎么就这样了呢!

蒋介石一辈子杀共产党人无数,但他唯独放了陈赓。

他知道,杀了陈赓,无法向历史交代。

就这样,陈赓因心中之共产主义信仰仍弃蒋而去。

中国近代以来,没有哪一个政治团体像中国共产党这样,拥有这么多的为胸中主义和心中理想抛头颅、洒热血、前赴后继、义无反顾、舍生忘死的有志之士。

这批人,他们不为官、不为钱、不怕苦、不怕死,只为主义、只为信仰便可用一生去奋斗。

中国共产党人时刻牢记历史使命

1946年3月,美国总统特使马歇尔访问延安,他的随行记者这样描述了共产党的政治中枢:在延安听到的最多的一个词,就是“人民”……中国人民如何,世界人民如何。‘到人民中去’‘向人民学习’,这些都是口号,但又包含着比口号更深的含义,代表着一种极深的感情,一种最终的信念。”

1949年蒋介石检讨失去大陆原因,全是政治原因,没有一条是军事原因。

蒋介石作为一个政治人物,在这一刻终于知道了自己失败的原因。

他将共产党的优点概括为七:

一是组织严密;

二是纪律严厉;

三是精神紧张;

四是手段彻底;

五是军政公开;

六是办事调查;

七是主义第一。

七条之后,蒋介石又补写,“干部不准有私产”,并把它作为中共最重要的优点。

这几条最后聚焦到“民心”。

这是对蒋介石为什么失败,共产党为什么胜利的总结。

心,在人类的世界里,有着超越其文字本身的含义。

人们往往用它来表达最纯粹、最真实的情感,表达我们内心最热切、最在意的期盼。

中共领导人的词汇中有:同心、信心、关心、核心、心连心……

我们看到的是,中国共产党对国家和民族坚定的信念,对全心全意为人民服务宗旨的坚守。

中国共产党的最高目标是实现由一个又一个胜利组成的最终的共产主义胜利。

中国共产党全部的合法性和合理性,就在于中华民族的百年救亡中中国共产党的担当。

1840年到1949年,这前一百年,从林则徐的虎门销烟,到洪秀全的太平天国,到曾国藩、左宗棠、李鸿章的洋务自强,到康有为、梁启超的戊戌维新,到孙中山的辛亥革命,毛泽东的新民主主义革命,所有人都是为了三个字,“救中国”。

挽救民族于危难之中,救亡的命题不是中国共产党所发起的,但是由中国共产党来终结的。

中国共产党的理论无论如何变化,万变不离其宗的,是新华门内永远不变的五个大字——

为人民服务。

这是共产党所有理论的起点和终点,是中国共产党人永远的出发点和归宿。共产党人不能放弃原则性、失去坚定性。

军委原副主席徐才厚、郭伯雄,军委原委员张阳、房峰辉,空军原政委田修思,武警部队原司令员王建平,国防大学原校长王喜斌,……全军先后查处涉嫌严重违纪、违法军级以上干部100多名,这个数字已经远远超过枪林弹雨中为缔造新中国而牺牲的将军的数量。

让我想起1997年参观美国西点军校时的情景。

当时美国驻华陆军副官胡伯中校陪同我参观,他是西点军校1978年的毕业生。

西点军校的纪念馆内陈列着上甘岭537.7高地和597.9高地两个模型。

胡伯中校指着模型对我说,这两个高地你们只有两个连守卫,而我们七个营轮番进攻,就是攻不上去,这是为什么?

是的,

我们当年守住高地,只有两个连,

而在今天,还有没有这样的精神高地?

还有没有这样坚强的队伍?

还能不能在炮火硝烟中看到仍然高扬的旗帜?

答案是肯定的。

“沉舟侧畔千帆过,病树前头万木春”,

中国共产党人必须时刻牢记历史使命,不断前进!

谨以此文祝福祖国,不忘初心,继续前进!

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原文始发于微信公众号(大唐宝宝):武汉疫情背后:中共不为人知的另一面让某些国家胆寒!

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